This two-volume work, published in 1831, is a critical study of early Christianity and the influence that Judaism had on the New Testament. Also offering a thorough exposition of the philosophy and theology of Philo of Alexandria, this remains a scholarly work of lasting value.
The German historian Eduard Meyer's two-volume work on ancient history up to the fifth century BCE was first published in 1892-1899. Volume 1 focuses on the Pelasgian people, the Ionians and Herodotus, while Volume 2 is devoted to the fifth century BCE, focusing on Attica, Cimon and Thucydides.
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's edition of Herakles was published in 1895. The renowned German philologist delivers a detailed reading and translation of Euripides' classic tragedy, and also provides the reader with an introduction to the context in which the tragedy unfolds.
This original two-volume edition of Niebuhr's History of Rome (1811-1812) is a valuable source of information on classical scholarship during a period of rapid growth. Niebuhr's work was influential both on later developments in ancient history and on the understanding of history as an academic discipline.
Karl Kiesewetter (1854-95), an influential German theosophical writer, published this two-volume account of occult beliefs in the ancient world in 1895, with the assistance of Ludwig Kuhlenbeck (1857-1920). It covers the ancient Near East, South Asia, the Mediterranean and northern Europe, giving attention to individuals, practices and teachings.
This pioneering work by Johann Gustav Droysen (1808-84), published in two volumes in 1836-43, was one of the first historical studies of the century after Alexander the Great, from 323 to 221 BCE. Droysen, who coined the term 'Hellenism', was noted especially for his careful attention to sources.
This monumental three-volume work by the German linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835), published posthumously in 1836-9, analyses the classical literary language of Java. Humboldt's pioneering work on Kawi and its relationship with languages such as Tagalog, Tongan, Tahitian and Hawaiian was a watershed in Austronesian linguistics.
First published in Germany in 1855 by the mineralogist Georg Landgrebe (1802-1872), this two-volume work presented the natural history of volcanoes for educated general readers. It reflects the lively scientific debates of its day as it describes the world's volcanoes, their activity, and rocks and minerals occurring around them.
This 1856 publication remains the most comprehensive study of the Ssabian communities of the Middle East during the early Islamic period. The Ssabians' beliefs and rituals were shrouded in mystery but their astronomers and physicians were highly regarded. This book introduces their culture, and contains many source texts with translations.
This account of the Schomburgk brothers' expedition to British Guiana, to survey and collect, between 1840 and 1844, was published in Germany in 1847-1848. They penetrated deep into the interior, and studied native tribes as well as flora and fauna. The account of the latter was considered particularly important.
F. G. Welcker's attempt, first published in two volumes in 1835 and 1849, to recover the lost epics of the archaic period, and the conditions of their performance and transmission. If his adventurous reconstructions do not always command assent, they offer many brilliant observations and insights in the making.
Reise in den Orient (1846) is the German biblical scholar Constantin von Tischendorf's recollection of his journey to Egypt, Israel and Greece at the beginning of the 1840s, including his extraordinary and significant discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus at St Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai.
The German scientist Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert (1780-1860) participated in the debates of his time on animal magnetism, clairvoyance and dreams, and attempted to reconcile Enlightenment philosophy and Christian faith. This two-volume work, reissued in its expanded 1850 edition, presents Schubert's views on the human body, soul and spirit.